Acute Presentation of Tuberculosis Empyema in a Healthy Adolescent.

BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) was the leading cause of infectious death worldwide until the COVID-19 pandemic, which reduced case reporting and disrupted TB diagnosis and services. While Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, the disease burden within developed nations remains relatively rare. Although the many complications of TB are well known, no current data exists on those infected with TB who subsequently developed recurrent TB empyema, as it is such a rare complication, especially in pediatric and adolescent populations. CASE REPORT A previously healthy 15-year-old male patient presented with 5-day duration of cough, congestion, intermittent fever, and post-tussive emesis. Although born in the United States, 3 months before presentation, he returned from Senegal, where he had lived for 4 years. Imaging demonstrated consolidation with loculated effusion. Patient underwent video-assisted thoracoscopy and chest tube placement, draining 750 mL of purulent fluid testing positive for rare acid-fast bacilli. Rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol were administered, with discharge medication compliance ensured by daily videos surveillance through the Department of Health. Although compliant with medications, patient presented to the Emergency Department 2 months later with a multi-loculated fluid recollection and fistula formation requiring chest tube placement. After this discharge, patient experienced resolution of disease following completion of therapy. CONCLUSIONS TB complication should be considered as a differential diagnosis for pleural effusion in the appropriate clinical setting. Providers should not only consider the diagnosis but pursue appropriate testing and management early, particularly in those with risk factors, including travel to an endemic location.
Date: 12 Sep 2023
DOI: 10.12659/ajcr.939419
Journal: The American journal of case reports
Pubmed ID: 37697641
ML/Curated Information
Viruses: SARS-CoV-2
Article Type(s): Research
Topics: Clinical Reports